Preventive and Treatment Strategies for COVID-19: Part 2

Part 1 of this series can be found here

Keep Fighting Fit

It’s only common sense to keep our bodies as healthy as we can to help us to fight off all kinds of illnesses. Obviously, we’re always going to encounter germs in our daily lives but keeping our immune systems in good condition is an excellent defense strategy. 

Follow these steps: 

  • Get enough sleep, ideally seven or eight hours each night. 
  • Try to reduce stress where you can in your life. 
  • Make sure you’re on a diet that contains plenty of plant-based antioxidants, minerals and vitamins and eat healthy food to keep your body and immune system in good shape. 
  • Make sure that you always get enough exercise whenever you can to keep everything in working order. 
  • Stop consuming all sugar
  • Stop smoking or vaping immediately. 

Wear Mask Protection

Get some N95 facemasks before supplies are gone. 

  • An N95 respirator is a respiratory protective device designed to achieve a very close facial fit and very efficient filtration of airborne particles.
  • The ‘N95’ designation means that when subjected to careful testing, the respirator blocks at least 95% of very small (0.3 micron) test particles. If properly fitted, the filtration capabilities of N95 respirators exceed those of facemasks. However, even a properly fitted N95 respirator doesn’t completely eliminate the risk of illness or death.

N95 respirators aren’t designed for children or people with facial hair. Because a proper fit cannot be achieved on children and people with facial hair, the N95 respirator may not provide full protection.

A full list of FDA approved respirators is provided below. These might already be out of stock everywhere but put orders in regardless of the backorder. 

  • 3M™ Particulate Respirator 8612F
  • Pasture Tm F550G Respirator
  • Pasture Tm A520G Respirator

Wear Eye Protection

Transmission through the eye is a common vector for the aerosolized virus. One of the common transmissions is touching public items then touching your face and transmitting it through the eye. Frequent hand washing and excellent hygiene are paramount.

Drug treatments

General

It’s important to be aware that there are at present no antiviral treatments that are effective for the treatment of Covid-19. There are currently no vaccines available for SARS-CoV-2. The present treatment approach is for supportive care and symptom management only. If people become severely ill, vital organ function support is necessary, usually in a hospital or ICU setting. 

Here’s a link to the number of drugs that as of February 2020 were being studied for the treatment of Covid 19.

The CDC also has a site discussing antiviral medications for the flu here

Chloroquine Phosphate

A Chinese multicenter collaboration group suggested this malaria drug might be useful for the treatment of Covid-19 pneumonia. In another recently published paper, the use of hydroxychloroquine, 400 mg twice daily followed by a maintenance dose of 200mg twice daily for four days, was found to be more potent than chloroquine to inhibit SARS-CoV2. Hydroxychloroquine was also shown to have fewer side effects than chloroquine while still addressing the inflammatory cytokine storm induced by the virus. 

The recommended dose of chloroquine phosphate was 500mg twice daily for ten days. 

Alinia (Nitazoxanide)

This drug is traditionally is used as an antiparasitic and has been studied for the treatment of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus. This drug has been shown, in test tube studies at least, to have activity against MERS-CoV and other coronaviruses. Further studies are being undertaken to determine its true efficacy. The recommended dose was 1000mg twice daily for 10 days.

HIV Drug - Kaletra (lopinavir-ritonavir)

A 62-year-old man who became Spain’s first coronavirus patient is believed to have made a full recovery after being treated with an HIV drug called Kaletra or lopinavir-ritonavir. Miguel Ángel Benítez was admitted to the Virgen del Rocio Hospital in Seville, where he received an antiretroviral drug, which has been used to treat HIV and AIDS for over ten years. The drug was combined with interferon beta, which is a protein that prevents cells from becoming infected and is administered to multiple sclerosis patients. Santiago Moreno, head of infectious diseases at the Ramón y Cajal hospital in Madrid, said that the “SARS-CoV-2 protease is very similar to that of HIV,” using a name that sometimes refers to the novel coronavirus.

Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS

In this February 2020 article it was discussed that “Coronavirus infection (regardless of the various types of corona virus) is primarily attacked by immune cells including mast cells (MCs), which are located in the submucosa of the respiratory tract and in the nasal cavity and represent a barrier of protection against microorganisms. Virus activate MCs which release early inflammatory chemical compounds including histamine and protease; while late activation provokes the generation of pro-inflammatory IL-1 family members including IL-1 and IL-33.” The article proposes for the first time that inflammation by coronavirus may be inhibited by anti-inflammatory cytokines belonging to the IL-1 family members. 

It may be that individuals with MCAS are at higher risk for developing the serious consequences of this infection and thus may benefit from much stricter control of the mast cell activation syndrome if infected. Nebulized cromolyn and/or glutathione or n-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and/or IV Benadryl may be extremely helpful in these conditions.

Alternative Remedies

In addition to the previous suggestions, there are a number of natural substances and supplements that can be of help in lowering your risk of becoming infected with the current coronavirus. Many of these approaches are not specific treatments for the coronavirus but have been studied and referenced in the literature as having antiviral effects.

Vitamin C

It’s common knowledge that vitamin C is good for us but there have been clinical trials in China regarding the intravenous use of vitamin C to help treat patients suffering from Covid-19. A dose of between 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (this is equal to quite a low dose of between 7.5 and 15 grams for a 180 lb person) was given to patients intravenously for three consecutive days and was very effective. There are currently three clinical trials sponsored by the Chinese government studying vitamin C. Dr. Tom Levy and Dr. Jeanne Drisko from the integrative U.S. medical community are involved in the Chinese studies. Dr. Richard Cheng MD PhD, who has been studying IV vitamin C, is suggesting the use of oral vitamin C.  The one study can be found at the clinicaltrial.gov website. High dose vitamin C at 20 grams has been used in ICUs for some time in an attempt to reduce mortality from septic shock, in one study from 40% to 4%. However, most hospitals refuse to administer IV vitamin C for viral infections since it’s not considered standard of care. It’s quite likely that these Chinese studies will place high dose IV vitamin C therapy for viral infections a part of mainstream treatment in the future.   

In the United States, doctors who have pioneered vitamin and mineral therapies have also been studying the effects of intravenous vitamin C, with a February 2020 paper being published. “Early Large Dose Intravenous Vitamin C is the Treatment of Choice for 2019-nCov Infected Pneumonia” recommends this for the treatment for pneumonia resulting from the virus. 

A recommended minimum oral daily dose of vitamin C is 2,000mg. Twice daily dosing is recommended due to the water-soluble nature of vitamin C and the fact that it’s quickly metabolized. If one wants a liposomal formulation, certain brands do provide this option or you can make your own by adding https://klinghardtinstitute.com/one or two teaspoons of Body Bio PC (phosphatidyl choline) to 2 grams of powdered vitamin C and stirring it vigorously. Divide your dose and take twice daily. Watch for diarrhea if your dose is excessive.

Vitamin D

This is also very important. It’s recommended that we have a minimum of 2,000 IU and a maximum of 10,000 IU per day. The usual daily dosage for vitamin D is 1000 IU per 25 pounds of body weight. It’s best to get vitamin D levels measured and to have serum levels in Canada between 150 and 200 nmol/l. People tend to have lower vitamin D levels in the fall and winter months due to fewer hours of sunlight. However, our bodies need vitamin D to support our immune system so we need to make sure that we’re getting enough of this vital ingredient. All the cells in our bodies have receptor sites but only two types are in every cell. These are thyroid hormone receptor sites, which are responsible for metabolism, and vitamin D receptor sides. This gives you some idea of the importance of vitamin D in maintaining our overall health and wellbeing. Research indicates that vitamin D may even be more effective than the flu vaccine when it comes to flu prevention. Consequently, it’s a good idea to include vitamin D in the fight against Covid-19.

It has been reported by many clinicians that high doses vitamin D of 50,000 IU over three days is highly effective in treating acute viral infections. This dosing is contraindicated in any person with lymphoid malignancies and in any patient with granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis, where high calcium levels are an issue. Also, a relative contraindication is pregnancy. This is by no means an approved treatment for Covid 19.   

Zinc 

This has been shown to be effective in fighting infections and also supports the immune system. Zinc can help to prevent coronavirus and other viruses multiplying in the throat and nasopharynx, which is the space above the soft palate at the back of the nose connecting the nose to the mouth and allowing us to breathe through our nose. When you begin to exhibit symptoms of the illness zinc capsules can be taken several times a day. The recommended dose for zinc is between 40 and 50mg per day.

Silver 

This has also has some antibacterial and anti-viral properties. If you use an official product such as Argentyn 23 you have a clear idea of how much silver you are putting into your body and don’t run the risk of taking too much. If you have viral symptoms, the recommended dosage is one teaspoon seven times per day. However, this is only a short-term solution as there are side effects such as skin discoloration if silver is used for too long.

Andrographis 

This herb has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurveda for a long time. It’s been shown that the herb’s compounds have anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antioxidant benefits. The herb boosts the immune system and is often employed to fight cold and flu symptoms. As a result it does have a role to play in treating the latest version of coronavirus, at least in the short term. One capsule twice a day is the recommended dose of the herbal supplement if you exhibit symptoms of the virus. There are a number of referenced articles that demonstrate its effectiveness against the influenza virus, particularly with regards to respiratory symptoms. Lyme patients with active disease may have a Herxheimer reaction as it increases lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin -2. 

Elderberry

Another natural short-term solution if you have typical flu symptoms, such as a cough, sneezing, and a runny nose, is elderberry extract taken up to six times a day. Elderberries come from the European elder tree, which is not the same as the American Elder, Elderflower, or Dwarf Elder. People believe the extract helps with the common cold, influenza, boosts the immune system, and reduces inflammation.

Calendula

Is also known as marigold and has been used as a medicinal herb for a very long time. The plant’s extracts have antiviral, antigenotoxic, and anti-inflammatory properties that can be used to treat some of the symptoms of Covid-19. 

Taraxasterol 

Also known as dandelion, this can also be used as an anti-inflammatory supplement. Dandelion also has antioxidant properties and some studies indicate that it has antiviral benefits and is good for our immune system. 

Propolis 

This is known to be a potent antiviral, particularly in animal models infected with corona virus. Dr. Ramzi Asfour, an infectious disease physician, suggests Beekeeper’s Natural propolis spray. Propolis increases cellular immune responses and has antiviral properties. Propolis can also be dispensed in a vaporizer (available from Ki Science) and has been shown to neutralize circulating mycotoxins in the air. 

CAUTION: Propolis is not to be taken if you have a Honey or Bee allergy.

Scutellaria

Most commonly known as skullcap, this is another flowering plant with medicinal qualities. It has been used to treat conditions such as respiratory infections and inflammation and have antibacterial, antiviral, and antioxidant properties. 

Artemisia annua

Also referred to as sweet wormwood this has been used in traditional medicine for some time and has been employed in medicines to treat malaria. There are some indications that the plant may also be used to treat some coronavirus symptoms, particularly the SARS related coronavirus.

Dr. Klinghardt, in his extremely informative PowerPoint presentation, has recommended placing calendula, licorice, scutalaria, andrographis, artemisia, and dandelion tinctures, calculated for their weekly dose, in a blender with 100mls of clean water and 14 grams of vitamin C powder. Add two tablespoons of liquid Body Bio PC phosphatidyl choline and blend for a few minutes. Put this mixture in a glass and keep in the fridge. Each day, drink one seventh of the dose.

Beyond Balance Herb Tinctures- IMN-V-III

This product contains 19 different herbs with antiviral and immune modulating effects, including licorice, skullcap, dandelion, and rosemary.

Peptides

Some patients have access to peptides with immunomodulating effects. I recently returned from a peptide conference in Los Angeles and the following peptides were suggested for their antiviral and immune modulatory effects.         

  • Thymosin alpha 1 - This is the most recommended peptide for immune stimulation. This should be used as a treatment adjuvant and a prophylactic and can help with many conditions beyond viral illness. The recommended daily dose in 450mcg.
  • Thymosin beta 4 - Natural killer cells are essential for defense against tumors and virus-infected cells. The cells are activated in by ONF-Gamma. This is activated by IL-18, which TB4 upregulates. Therefore, TB4 has ben studied for many Immune related diseases. Caution is warranted with cancer patients as it can increase the growth of cancers.
  • LL 37 (cathelicidin) - This peptide has broad spectrum antiviral/microbial, fungal effects. Peptides such as LL 37 are key components of innate defenses against infection, with both microbial and host defense modulatory functions. In addition to their well documented bactericidal potential, CHDP have more recently been shown to have antiviral properties. LL 37 has ben shown to be highly effective in preventing viral attachment to cells. It’s been used in several virus studies and has been anecdotally reported to work well with respiratory tract viruses.
  • Pentosan polysulfate - Polysulfates are highly potent and selective inhibitors of the in vitro replication of HIV and other enveloped viruses such as coronavirus. The anti-viral activity of polysulfates is a result of their shielding of the positively charged sites in the V3 loop of the viral envelope glycoprotein gpl120, which inhibits viral entry into cells and allows for immune clearance. The usual dose is 2mg/kg.
  • Selank - This is a variant of the immune molecule tufstin and has potent antiviral properties in addition to its neurological effects. The antiviral characteristics of Selank were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo against the influenza virus strain H3N2 and H5N1 and the type 1 and 2 Herpes virus. It was revealed that Selank might have a prophylactic effect during influenza infection and a therapeutic effect during a herpes virus infection. It could also be helpful with Covid-19.

The Hoffman Centre Programs for cold and flu treatment

We have developed a number of potential programs for acute cold and flu treatment. While the details aren’t specific to coronavirus many of the recommendations are applicable to dealing with virus that commonly infect us in the winter months. These recommendations are in no way a substitute for quick and rapid communication with your healthcare providers and the guidelines as issued via websites (like this one), previously mentioned at the beginning of this article.

Any treatment that you decide to undertake should start at the first onset of symptoms. The following instructions are to be followed for the duration of symptoms unless otherwise stated. 

Immediately stop consuming any sugar, since this paralyzes your white blood cells, the body’s first defense against illness. Make sure you also get plenty of sleep, at least between 7.5 and 8.5 hours per night. Hot apple cider vinegar baths twice a day will help to speed up the progression of the cold and reduce your fever, potentially halving the amount of time you may have symptoms. Add two cups of apple cider vinegar to a full bath of hot water and soak for twenty minutes, remembering to fully submerge your body. If the illness has affected the chest, you can steam water over the stove, add eucalyptus drops, and breathe in the vapor for some relief from your symptoms.

Please note that this treatment program is not to be undertaken if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Adult Dosage (age 16 and up)

Oscillococcinum is the first supplement to take at the first sign of a cold or flu. This works better for flu like symptoms (not cold symptoms) and you simply need to follow the directions on the package.

  • Vitamin D - 50,000 IU for three days. Contraindication to use of high dose vitamin D is lymphoid malignancies, pregnancy, and granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis
  • Mycelized vitamin A - 100,000 IU for three days. Contraindicated in pregnancy. 
  • Vitamin C - 1 to 2g two to three times daily (titrate dose upward to bowel tolerance)
  • Astragalus Tincture - 1 dropper three times daily
  • Echinamide Anti-Cold tincture - 2ml three times daily
  • Probiomax probiotic - 1 capsule two times daily 
  • Saccharomyces Boulardii - 2 capsules twice daily
  • Garlic/allicin - 2 capsules three times daily after meals. Open the capsule in 6oz of water and let sit for two minutes before drinking.
  • Argentyn 23 colloidal silver  - 1 teaspoon three times daily in water
  • Andrographis - 2 dropperfuls twice daily in water
  • Transfer Factor Multi Immune - 2 capsules twice daily
  • DHEA - 50mg per day for two to three days will boost the immune system and fight infection. Note that this is for adults only.
  • For muscle aches take arnica and/or magnesium malate - 2 caps three times daily
  • Add anti-viral supplements such as olive leaf extract - 2 capsules three times daily, oil of oregano (brand name ADP) 2 capsules three times per day and lysine 500mg 2 capsules three times daily

IV Treatment for 3 days

  • IV vitamin C - 15 to 35g once per day. Check for G6PG enzyme deficiency first
  • Alternatively - IV Hydrogen Peroxide, once per day

Child Dosage (2 years and older)

    • Mycelized vitamin A – 10,000 IU for three days
    • Vitamin D - 10,000 IU for three days
    • Vitamin C - Between 250 and 500mg three times daily (to bowel tolerance)
    • Echinamide Anti-Cold - Between an third and a half a dropper three times daily 
    • Probiomax probiotic  - Half a capsule twice daily
    • Saccharomyces Boulardii - Half to a full capsule twice daily
    • Garlic - Half to a full capsule twice daily after meals. Open capsule in 6oz of water and let sit for two minutes before drinking. Note that it is difficult to get a child to take this.
    • Argentyn 23 colloidal silver - Half a teaspoon three times daily in water
    • Transfer Factor Multi Immune - 2 capsules daily

Maintenance and Prevention 

Remember to stop consuming any sugar immediately, since sugar paralyzes your white blood cells, which provide your body’s first defense against sickness. Make sure you get at least 7.5 to 8.5 hours of sleep each night as well. This treatment program is not for women that are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Throat Infection

  • Zinc - 30 to 50mg lozenges. The topical antimicrobial effect can be important in infections of the throat.
  • Biocidin throat spray - 2 sprays three to five times daily
  • Propolis throat spray – 5 sprays three times daily
  • Argentyn 23 throat spray- 3 sprays three times per day
  • See your doctor for a throat swab to exclude strep throat and/or mononucleosis

CAUTION: Propolis is not to be taken if you have a Honey or Bee allergy.

Nasal Irrigation

Use a Neti Pot, particular with upper respiratory infection, for three days. 

  • Place one dropper full of Nasya wash into your Neti Pot with warm water and a heaping quarter teaspoon of pure non-ionized Neti Pot Salt. 
  • Stir until salt is dissolved. 
  • Add three drops of Echinacea Anti Cold and Core Phyto Lavage to the solution. Use this to perform the nasal wash as directed by the Neti Pot instructions on the bottle.

Air Spray

  • Add a quarter teaspoon of salt to the bottom of an empty spray bottle. 
  • Add five drops of Thieves, an essential oil by Young Living, on top of the salt as this will help to dissipate it, 
  • Fill bottle with warm water. 

Now you now have an air spray that will assist in lowering counts of viruses, bacteria, and molds in the air. 

  • Spray your home, office, and other areas a couple of times a day. 
  • You can also put Thieves drops into your palms and cup your hands over your face then inhale five or six times. 
  • This will prevent you from contracting a sinus or lung infection, especially during long distance flights.

Dr. Alex Vasquez Recommendations

Dr. Alex Vasquez is an internationally recognized author, presenter, and teacher, particularly with regards to immune related disorders. He earned three doctorate degrees from fully accredited universities in the United States and has worked in various clinical facilities ranging from private boutique clinics to inpatient hospital settings. Dr. Vasquez has published 120 books, articles, letters and editorials in various magazines and peer-reviewed medical journals, including British Medical Journal, Journal of the American Medical Association, Nature Reviews Rheumatology, and Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

What follows are his recommendations for viral infections and are not meant to be specific treatments for any infections, particularly coronavirus. I’ve included these references for those curious patients who are always checking out protocols online.  

Antiviral

  • Powdered Glycyrrhiza Glabra - 1.5g BID for a maximum of four weeks. Works as a tea. This is a great expectorant but avoid in heart failure patients, monitor BP and potassium
  • Zinc - Between 20 and 50mg a day
  • Selenium – 400 to 600 ug per day
  • Iodoral Iodine/Iodide - 12.5mg a day for two weeks
  • Melissa officialis - Dose variable depending on formulation
  • Carica papaya leaf extract
  • Grape seed extract (see Biotics Research Bio-Cyanidins below)

Viral Anti-replication

  • SAMe - 400mg TID plus Betaine TMG 3g BID for one week
  • Methyl-Folate - 1.6mg od for one to two weeks
  • Alpha Lipoic Acid - 300 to 400mg TID plus Thiamine 100mg (or B Complex High Potency)
  • NAC - 600mg BID to TID between meals

Immunonutrition

  • Paleo-Mediterranean Diet with no refined carbohydrates 
  • Protectamin Whey Protein - 45g a day for immune dipeptides, if dairy tolerant
  • L-Glutamine powder - 9g TID between meals 
  • Vitamin A - 100,000 IU load for three to five days, then 25,000 to 50,000 IU for two weeks (not during pregnancy)
  • Vitamin D3 - 100,000 to 300,000 IU load for one dose, then 10,000 IU for ten days to increase endogenous antimicrobial peptides
  • Nordic Naturals Arctic Cod Liver Oil without vitamin D - One teaspoon TID with meals
  • Selenium - 600-800mcg/d plus 800 IU vitamin E per day
  • Melatonin - 20mg qHS
  • Ubiquinol CoQ10 - 300mg od to protect the mitochondria
  • Biotics Research KappArest - Three capsules BID as NFKB hijacked by viruses for replication
  • Biotics Research Bio-Cyanidins - One tablet BID (contains marine pine bark and grape seed extract)
  • Biotics Research UltraVir-X - One capsule TID (Red-rooted sage, Boneset, Actratylodes, Sweet Violet, Wheat Grass, Bupleurum, Astralagus, Bee Propolis, Maitake, Black Walnut, Hesperidin, Rutin)
  • Biotics Research POA-Phytolens (Cats’ Claw, Lens esculenta extract) - One capsule TID
  • Consider broad spectrum multi such as Metagenics PhytoMulti at two tablets per day (adjust dosage of Zinc and Selenium above)

CAUTION: Propolis is not to be taken if you have a Honey or Bee allergy.

Treatment and Vaccines

  • There is no vaccine currently available to combat the current coronavirus outbreak. 
  • The best advice is to protect yourself in some of the ways outlined above and avoid contact with infected individuals or locations where you might encounter potential carriers of the virus. 
  • There’s no specific antiviral treatment that’s recommended for patients with the Covid-19 virus. 
  • Those infected should receive the medical treatment required to deal with their symptoms, including care of vital organs in the most severe cases. 

In Conclusion

  • While we still don’t know everything about the current Covid-19 virus, common sense and taking precautions and preventative measures will be a great help. 
  • The feeling in the medical community is that the virus is likely to become less aggressive and less dangerous over time, as many viruses do, although this is far from certain. 
  • Many viruses adapt, mutate, and continue to live with us everyday. Time will tell if the latest threat will follow the same pattern in the coming weeks and months.

As a final note, in the current circumstances, if you’re suffering from what you’d describe as symptom similar to flu such as a cough, fever, chills, or an aching feeling in the body, please don’t visit the office. If you have an appointment we can do a phone consultation instead or even connect via zoom online. Staying at home will allow you the opportunity to recover and also reduce the likelihood that you’ll pass on the virus to others.

Resources

 https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/prevention.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fabout%2Fprevention-treatment.html
 Courtesy of Tailor Made Pharmacy  
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/prevention-treatment.html 
 Expert consensus on chloroquine phosphate for the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za ZHi 2020 Feb 20. 43:E019
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32150618
 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876034116300181
https://nypost.com/2020/03/05/coronavirus-patient-in-spain-reportedly-recovers-after-being-treated-with-hiv-drug/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32013309/
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04264533
 http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v16n11.shtml
 Epidemic Influenza and Vit D. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16959053
 https://www.argentyn23.com/
 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00705-016-3166-3
 Biol Pharm Bull. 2009 Aug; 32 (8) : 1385-91
https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-434/elderberry
 http://insajournal.in/insaojs/index.php/proceedings/article/view/305
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28480383
 Ferreira L, Effect of the ethanolic extract from green propolis on production of antibodies after immunization against canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine coronavirus (CCOV). Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 49.2 (2012):116-121. http://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/40267
Dr Horowitz newsletter 
 https://kiscience.com/product/propolair-propolis-diffuser-therapy-model/
 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211383520302999
http://www.hdbiosciences.com/Download/Identification%20of%20natural%20compounds%20with%20antiviral%20activities%20against%20SARS-associated%20coronavirus.pdf
 Antiviral Research 67, No 1 (2005): 18-23
 https://klinghardtinstitute.com/
 Courtesy of Tailor Made Pharmacy.
 https://www.inflammationmastery.com/

What You Need to Know About COVID-19: Part 1

Every day brings a new update about the spread of coronavirus. There are more cases all around the world every day and naturally people are very concerned. There’s certainly not a shortage of stories in the media but is the virus as dangerous as it’s being portrayed? And is the hysteria that’s being generated potentially more damaging than the threat posed by the virus?

In Canada, you can get the very latest updates courtesy of the federal government, including the current situation in different parts of the country, the risk to Canadians, how the government is monitoring the virus, travel advice, and the symptoms, treatment, and risk factors here.

A similar range of information is available for Alberta residents here. For those of you in the U.S. you can access pertinent information here

Mass panic is certainly not going to help the situation but neither will complacency. Despite the fear being whipped up on social media and in the traditional media reports, it’s perfectly natural to be anxious about this situation. This outbreak isn’t to be casually dismissed as it is very serious and everyone needs to accept that and not be in denial. We all need to work together to get through this. We may not know everything about the coronavirus yet and vaccines, treatment and indeed cures are still some way off, but we need to determine strategies that are going to work to protect ourselves and prevent the spread of the virus. So what exactly is coronavirus?

The Virus

Coronavirus is an illness that mostly affects our respiratory system. Doctors are still learning about the virus but it is thought to primarily be airborne, which means that it can be spread from one person to another. When a person coughs or sneezes they produce what are known as respiratory droplets. These can be breathed in by other people that are nearby or left on your hands if you touch your face after coughing or sneezing. In China, the fact that the illness seems to be mainly transmitted to family members, healthcare workers and others in close contact with an infected person strongly indicates the transfer of the virus is by respiratory droplets. The droplets can also remain on objects that have been touched, such as door handles, keyboard, elevator buttons, and many other everyday items. The virus can then spread if a person comes into contact with a surface that’s been contaminated. 

It has been suggested by recent studies that asymptomatic patients are also able to transmit the infection. This means that isolation might not be as effective a weapon against the virus as was previously thought. Researchers followed viral expression through infection through throat and nasal throat swabs in a small select group of patients. The researchers discovered that there were increases in viral loads at the point when the patients became asymptomatic. Doctors in Wuhan, China, studied 425 patients that had the virus. Many of the earliest cases were linked to direct exposure to live animal and seafood markets. However, later cases were unconnected to the animal markets, reinforcing the theory that the virus is transmitted between humans. 

There are believed to be many different types of coronavirus but only 7 of them can cause disease in humans. Some of the coronaviruses that usually affect animals are also able to infect people. The diseases Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) are also caused by coronaviruses that moved to people from animals. Like MERS and SARS, COVID-19 is believed to have originated in bats. Before the illness was brought under control in 2003, SARS infected more than 8,000 people and almost 800 died. 2,465 cases of MERS have been reported since 2012 and 850 people have died. The mortality rate for SARS was around 10%, whereas for MERS the mortality rate is around 34.5%.

The coronavirus that is currently in the news is called SARS-COV-2 (formerly called 2019-nCOV). The disease that it causes has been called Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Once someone has the virus, the symptoms can be very mild but for some people they can be very serious and endanger life. Although we’re still learning about COVID-19 it does seem to be milder in its effects than SARS or MERS, with only a 2% mortality rate. Initially, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that the worst severe cases in China were mostly in adults over 40 years old with significant comorbidities. This means that the patient has more than one chronic medical condition. The illness also seemed to affect more men than women, although this could change as the outbreak continues. As of March 12, 2020, COVID-19 had been confirmed in more than 128,343 people, mostly in China. To date 68,324 people have recovered from the infection. By this date, the virus had caused more than 4,720 deaths and has spread to more and more countries. These websites have information on the global situation that is updated regularly. Keep in mind that an estimated 291,000 to 646,000 people die worldwide from flu every year.

Symptoms of Coronavirus

A person that has Covid-19 might not show any symptoms at all for between 2 and 12.5 days, with the average time being 5.2 days. This one can easily pass it on to others without even knowing that they are infected in the early stages. The average time from infection to symptoms appears to be 12.5 days. The pandemic worldwide appears to be doubling every 7 days and every infected person appears to infect an average of 2.2 others.

Symptoms can include:

  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Breathing difficulties and shortness of breath.

While some of the symptoms are similar to colds and flu that people suffer from throughout the year, there are important differences. With the common cold we suffer from a runny nose and there is sputum or phlegm. This is the mixture of mucus and saliva that we cough up from our lungs when we get sick. With the coronavirus there’s a dry cough but no runny nose. This may occur in a small percentage of patients (4%) but it’s thought this is because they already have some form of flu or cold symptoms.

If nasal congestion does occur with this virus, it is usually very severe. If there is an associated sore throat, it can last for three or four days. The virus might then move to the trachea and lungs, resulting in pneumonia that can last for five or six days. Breathing difficulties and a high fever are also likely at this stage of the illness. People infected might have one or more other symptoms including headaches, muscle pain and stiffness, fatigue, loss of appetite, chills and sweats, a rash, dizziness, stomach upsets, or nausea. Numbers do vary but around 90-98% of people have a fever, 80% a dry cough, and 30% have trouble breathing and extreme fatigue. Acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in about 29 % of patients infected. Even though pneumonia is involved, 80% percent of these cases are mild and the person doesn’t need to go to a hospital. About 15 % had severe infection and 5 % were critical. The Chinese CDC analysis of 44,672 patients reported that the fatality rate on healthy people with no reported comorbid conditions was 0.9%.  

In general, children, younger people, and young adults seem to get mild versions of the illness. Those at the highest risk are people aged 70 to 75 or older that have existing medical conditions such as cardiac problems or pulmonary issues such as emphysema. The virus is also more likely to affect people with weakened immune systems, kidney disease, diabetes, hepatitis B, and cancer.

Protecting Yourself

There are a number of ways that you can protect yourself from being infected by the Covid-19 virus. Many of these are things should be part of our daily routines to prevent the spread of germs and keep our bodies healthy.

  • Washing your hands regularly throughout the day with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds each time will help to keep infection at bay. 
  • All surfaces of the hands need to be cleaned, front and back, between the fingers and under the nails. You can use an alcohol-based non-toxic hand sanitizer (60% alcohol-based) if there’s no soap and water available. However, always use soap and water rather than hand sanitizer whenever possible. 
  • Always wash your hands before eating and touching your face. This is something you may have heard quite often recently, but infection can be spread via the nose, mouth, or eyes if your hands aren’t clean. Admittedly, the virus can only survive on your hands for between and ten minutes but although that may not seem long you could touch another part of your body in that time and spread the virus. 
  • Things that are frequently touched in the home, workplace or other locations must be regularly cleaned and disinfected with wipes or cleaning sprays. The virus can survive for up to twelve hours if it falls onto a metal surface. On fabric it lives for between six and twelve hours but regular laundry detergent will destroy the virus.
  • Gargling can work to protect your throat from the virus. You can use a standard solution from the drugstore but really one made from salt in warm water is all you really need. 
  • It’s also a good idea to drink plenty of warm liquids such as tea rather than cold drinks, either with or without ice. 
  • Some people have also found bee propolis mouth spray to work well. Propolis is a substance created by bees to protect their hives against bacteria. As a spray it helps to relieve a sore throat or other mouth issues and strengthens the immune systems. It also encourages antioxidants in our bodies. Antioxidants are molecules that neutralize free radicals, which are unstable molecules cause cell damage. CAUTION: Propolis is not to be taken if you have a Honey or Bee allergy.
  • If you’re showing no symptoms and remain healthy, avoid contact with others that are sick since the virus is considered to be airborne and spreads very quickly. It’s believed that the virus can travel between six and eight feet when it’s airborne. 
  • If you are sick with the virus, avoid contact with other so that you don’t help the virus to spread. Stay away from work or school and isolate yourself at home until you can recover. 
  • If you’re coughing and sneezing, try not to do this into your hands but into the crook of your arm or use a tissue to cover your nose and mouth and ensure that tissues are safely disposed of in the garbage. 
  • If you’re sick and have no choice but to go outside your home, wear a mask that covers your nose and mouth. This will stop you from infecting others while you’re out. However, bear in mind that if you don’t already have the virus a mask this will not protect you from catching the virus from an infected person that isn’t wearing a mask.

To Follow: PREVENTIVE STRATEGIES AND TREATMENT SUGGESTIONS 

Resources

https://www/medscape.com/viewarticle/924268.
https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMc2001737
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2001316
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCMONnSecl445zOPy7-KXJKw?utm_source=Klinghardt+Institute+Newsletter&utm_campaign=72be1085f0-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2020_03_09_05_16_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_e85a79fc40-72be1085f0-154835213&mc_cid=72be1085f0&mc_eid=980e013edf 
 https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/924268.
https://www.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/bda7594740fd40299423467b48e9ecf6
 https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/locations-confirmed-cases.html
http://cdc.gov/media/releases/2017p1213-flu-death-estimate.html
Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, et al. Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China of Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia. N Engl. J Med. 2020 Jan 29 
 https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/symptoms.html
 https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/prevention.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fabout%2Fprevention-treatment.html

Male Menopause is No One-Man Band

If all the hormones in the body work together like musical instruments in an orchestra, it means that male menopause is not only about low testosterone. The other players are also out of tune. If you’ve read about “male menopause”, you probably know about testosterone. In fact, in the first edition of Health Intelligence, a lot was explained about this hormone in the article “A moody man with no libido”. Dropping levels of testosterone cause many of the complaints of the typical grumpy man in the grips of a mid-life crisis. Indeed, if the hormones in the body work together like the instruments in an orchestra, testosterone is the strings, while estrogen is the brass section. If the testosterone level fades, estrogen begins to overpower and, before long, the whole orchestra plays out of tune.

So a better overall balance of hormones is required as a man grows older. The thing is, this involves not only testosterone and estrogen, but also all the other hormones. The challenge is noticing the discord when it starts, because the first few bad notes may be subtle and are often blamed on stress or simply getting older.

Sound Check

Men don’t usually come to the doctor’s once complaining about male menopause, also called andropause. The more common scenario is a fifty-something executive, slightly overweight, appearing exhausted and irritable, reluctantly showing up for a check-up. It was his wife, enquiring into her menopausal status the week before, who had mentioned to the doctor, “You know, I think my husband should come and see you. He hasn’t been himself lately. He’s grumpy. He lies down on the couch any chance he can get. He complains of vague aches and pains, and I can’t remember the last time we had sex!”

By asking a few probing questions, the doctor finds out that his symptoms were slower and more insidious in onset than his wife’s but, just as dramatic in their eventual outcome. Men traditionally tend to have a more stoic and fatalistic approach to encroaching signs and symptoms, but as an imbalance in hormone levels typically affects a man’s sexual performance first, this is often what propels him to seek medical attention.

The danger of ignoring all the other signs of declining hormone levels – those – offkey notes of the orchestra getting rusty – is that andropause is not necessarily a harmless, “natural” process. It often comes with major physical and mental changes that, over the long term, can have a dramatic effect on slowly developing diseases. But exactly what do these changes involve and when do they start?

Highs and Lows

Male menopause is a gradual shift in hormonal, physiological and chemical balances that occur in all men between the ages of 40 and 55, although it can occur as early as 35 and as late as 65 (1)

Incidentally, the term “hormone” is derived from the Greek word hormo, which means to set in motion. This is precisely what hormones do. Hormones are involved in almost every biological process, including sexual reproduction, growth, metabolism and your body’s immune response. It’s no wonder that the symptoms of andropause are so varied and widespread. Hormones stimulate, regulate and control the function of various tissues and organs and are manufactured by specialised groups of cells in your glands. These glands, which include the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, ovaries and testes, release the hormones into the body as and when they’re needed. But as men grow older, a slow change begins to set in.

The Slow fall

Hormone levels that decline as a man ages are:

  • Testosterone
  • Growth hormone
  • Melatonin
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
  • Progesterone
  • Pregnenolone
  • Oxytocin

The Gradual Rise

Hormone levels that go up with andropause are:

  • Estrogen
  • Insulin
  • Cortisol

As mentioned before, testosterone is the strings in the ageing man’s orchestra of hormones – when it begins to fade, estrogen takes over. The detrimental effects of this drop in testosterone is summarised below.

Why Low Levels of Testosterone Are Dangerous

Studies have shown that too little testosterone in the ageing man’s blood is linked to:

  • Heart disease (2)
  • Declining memory (3)
  • Anxiety (4)
  • Depression (5)
  • Alzheimer’s disease (6)
  • Diabetes and metabolic syndrome (7)
  • Loss of muscle mass and strength (8)
  • Loss of bone thickness and strength (9)
  • A greater chance of dying from any cause (10)

The fears around testosterone replacement therapy and whether it may cause prostate cancer have also been laid to rest by definitive studies. (11)(12) But what about the effects of all the other fading players in the hormone orchestra?

DHEA

DHEA is a hormone made by the adrenal glands, gonads (testicles and ovaries), brain and skin in both men and women. It also declines with advancing age. By the time we are 70-80 years of age, peak levels of DHEA are only 10-20% of those in young adults (13)

As DHEA is the most important and abundant steroid hormone and the precursor of all other sex hormones, it serves extremely well to help restore many functions in the body. Low levels of DHEA are associated with ageing and most diseases of ageing.

Studies have shown that the dramatic age-related drop in DHEA levels is accompanied by an equally dramatic rise in heart disease.(14) It seems DHEA is incorporated into both HDL “good” cholesterol and LDL “bad” cholesterol and helps to protect both from becoming oxidised – a process that spells trouble for the heart and arteries. As our DHEA levels drop with age, less of this hormone is available to protect our cholesterol and the more at risk we are of developing heart problems.

It’s well known that cortisol, the stress hormone, harms the brain. But DHEA, due to its action in keeping cortisol in check, appears to protect the brain from these damaging effects (15)
Many of the diseases of ageing, such as heart disease, Alzheimer’s, certain cancers, diabetes and osteoporosis, are all linked in one way or another to inflammation. Studies have shown that DHEA is an effective anti-inflammatory and maintaining youthful levels of this hormone as we age may play a key role in protecting us from these in inflammatory diseases (16)

DHEA is also a mood modulator (17) One study showed that supplementing with 50mg of DHEA every night for six months in both men and women, aged 40-70, improved energy levels, quality of sleep, mood and the ability to handle stress (18)

How to Boost your DHEA Levels Naturally:

  • Eat a low-calorie diet containing less than 40g of carbohydrates per day
  • Exercise and meditate
  • Take part in creative, physical activities that reduce stress.

Growth Hormone

A drop in growth hormone (GH) as you grow older can also have a dramatic effect on your sense of well-being. GH has multiple protective roles and is responsible for our major growth spurt during puberty.(19) In adulthood, GH maintains skin, muscle and bone health. With a deficiency of this hormone, signs of ageing are quickly accelerated. Skin wrinkles and sags; fat soon replaces muscle. GH also helps maintain and repair the health of various organs, including the heart, lungs, liver kidneys joints, nerves as well as the brain. As growth hormone activates the calming, regenerative parasympathetic nervous system, a deficiency may result in increased tension, anxiety, depression and a decreasing ability to cope with stress.

From the age of 30 onwards, GH levels decline fairly rapidly, about 1-3% per year. This loss is quickly accelerated if you’re obese. The most efficient way to replace GH is through daily injection, similar to a diabetic insulin injection. Most anti-aging doctors will not treat GH in the first year of restoring optimal hormone levels, as a protein rich diet, adequate sleep and exercise programme, and the replacement of testosterone, progesterone, melatonin and thyroid levels, may increase GH levels by as much as 20-30%. Treatment with GH begins only when all the other hormone levels in the body have been brought back to normal.

How to Boost your GH Levels Naturally:

  • Supplement your diet with amino acids
  • Exercise daily
  • Make sure all the other hormones are at youthful levels
  • Eat a diet rich in proteins
  • Avoid alcohol, sugar, sweets, breads and pasta
  • Lose weight
  • Avoid milk products
  • Avoid sleep deprivation
  • Avoid prolonged stress.

Progesterone

In the third edition of Health Intelligence, we wrote in depth about progesterone replacement therapy for men, who typically produce between 1,5-3mg of this hormone per day. But as men age, progesterone levels fall exponentially. Progesterone is used in the production of cortisol, the stress hormone. So, if a man leads a particularly stressful life, it’s very likely he will have low levels of progesterone. This hormone is vital in keeping the higher levels of estrogen in aging men in check and thus minimising the risk of heart attacks, prostate enlargement and prostate cancer. If a typical dose of progesterone may lower estradiol levels – a cancer-causing form of estrogen – by up to 30%.(20) Progesterone also lowers the hormone responsible for causing hair loss and baldness in men, called dihydrotestosterone (DHT), while reducing water retention and possibly high blood pressure. (21)

How to Boost your Progesterone Levels naturally

  • Eat a diet rich in protein
  • Manage stress daily with stress reduction techniques
  • Supplement with herbs and nutraceuticals, such as Rhodiola rosea, siberian ginseng, liquorice root extract, ashwagandha and vitamins B5 and C.

Melatonin

Melatonin, the sleep hormone, is another hormone on which to keep an eye with advancing age. Signs that you may be deficient include light, restless sleep with many anxious thoughts, easy waking during the night, difficulty falling asleep and falling back asleep once you’re awake, bad dreams or poor dream recall, anxiety at night, depression (especially the winter blues) excessive emotionality and irritability, and restless leg syndrome with increased muscle spasms. You may also have intestinal spasms or cramps. Melatonin has a positive effect on the part of our nervous system involved in rest and relaxation. In particular, melatonin plays a part in slowing the release of adrenalin, so, without enough of it, the body reacts with a fight-or-flight response.(22) Melatonin may also improve your sexual performance, particularly enhancing serenity and relaxation after sex.(23)

Studies have linked a melatonin deficiency to hypertension, artery disease, heartbeat irregularity, obesity, diabetes, osteoporosis, lowered immunity with recurrent infections, breast and prostate cancer, and brain diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. Melatonin supplements should be taken at bedtime, either under the tongue or in pill form. It works best when you combine it with vitamin B6 and tryptophan or 5-hydroxytryptophan, which convert to melatonin with the help of vitamin B6. Interestingly, some asthmatics may react negatively to melatonin, so use with care if you‘re an asthma sufferer.(24)

How to Boost your Melatonin Levels Naturally

  • Increase your exposure to morning daylight (use a sunlamp)
  • Make the room pitch black at night, use an eye mask
  • Avoid alcohol and caffeinated drinks
  • Avoid stressful activities
  • Avoid electromagnetic exposures at night such as to cell phones or electrical clocks and radios
  • Wear turquoise coloured glasses 30 minutes before bed.

Pregnenolone

Pregnenolone is made from cholesterol and is the mother of many hormones, including DHEA, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, cortisol and aldosterone.(25) In addition to functioning as a hormone, it also serves as a brain chemical, or neurotransmitter, in specific areas of the brain responsible for memory. Pregnenolone regulates the flow of calcium through the cell membrane, and this process determines how memory is encoded by our nerve cells. In addition, pregnenolone increases the levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, the brain chemical responsible for creating memories, as well as assisting the main part of the brain that stores memory. (26) The most common complaints of men with pregnenolone deficiency include memory loss and joint pain, as well as dry skin and fatigue. Replacement doses are typically 30mg twice a day for memory loss.

You may choose to use other brain boosting nutraceuticals such as:

  • Acetyl-L -carnitine
  • Vinpocetine
  • Phosphatidylserine, combined with omega-3 fatty acids
  • Phosphatidylcholine
  • DMAE
  • G6PC
  • Huperizine
  • Vitamin D
  • Blueberries.

Oxytocin

Oxytocin, a hormone known to improve social bonding, is made by the pituitary gland in the brain. It helps us fall in love, spurs parenting instincts and intensifies orgasms. Studies have found that similar to women, men report an improved sexual response in all respects when using an oxytocin nasal spray, including stronger feelings of tenderness and closeness with the sexual partner before, during and after sex.(27)

Armed with information about the importance of youthful hormone levels at hand, there is no reason why men of a certain age couldn’t stay completely tuned into the music of life, no matter what their age.

The following Aspects Boosts Oxytocin levels Naturally

  • Romantic love
  • Hugging
  • Soft touching
  • Massage
  • Orgasm
  • Partner support
  • Singing
  • Physical exercise
  • Warm climate
  • Positive environment
  • Reading
  • Positive social contacts
  • Viewing pictures of loved ones
  • Living with others (cohabitation).

References

  1. Jed Diamond. Male Menopause Sourcebook INC. Naperville, IL 1998, 1v
  2. English K, et al. Men with coronary artery disease have lower levels of androgens than men with normal coronary angiograms. Eur Heart J. Jun 2000;21(11):890-4
  3. Moffat SD, et al. Longitudinal assessment of free testosterone concentration predicts memory performance and cognitive status in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Nov 2002;87(11):5001-7
  4. Cooper MA. Testosterone Replacement Therapy for Anxiety Am J Psychiatry. November 2000;157:1884
  5. Margolese HC, et al. The male menopause and mood: testosterone decline and depression in the aging male–is there a link? J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. Summer 2000;13(2):93-101
  6. Gouras GK et al. Testosterone reduces neuronal secretion of Alzheimer’s beta- amyloid peptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. Feb 2000;97(3):1202-5
  7. Laaksonen DE, et al. Testosterone and sex hormone – binding globulin predict the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in middle-aged men. Diabetes Care. May 2004;27(5):1036-41
  8. Bhasin S. The dose-dependent effects of testosterone on sexual function and on muscle mass and function. Mayo Clin Proc. Jan 2000;75 Suppl: 70-5
  9. Van Den Beld AW, et al. Measures of bioavailable serum testosterone and estradiol and their relationships with muscle strength, bone density and body composition in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Sep 2000; 85(9):3276-82
  10. Gail A. Low serum testosterone and mortality in older men. J of Clin Endocrin and Metab. Jan 2008;93(1):68-75
  11. Morley JE. Testosterone replacement and the physiologic aspects of aging in men. Mayo Clin Proc. Jan 2000; 75 Suppl: S83-7
  12. Roddam Aw et al. Endogenous sex hormones and prostate cancer: a collaborative analysis of 18 prospective studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. Feb 2008;100(3):170-83
  13. Genazzani Ad, et al. Might DHEA be considered a benefcial replacement therapy in the elderly? Drugs Aging. 2007;24(3):173-85
  14. O’ Donnell AB, et al. The health of normally aging men: The Massachusetts Male Aging Study. Exp Gerontol. Jul 2004;39(7):975-84
  15. Canning MO, et al. Opposing effects of DHEA and dexamethasone on the generation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Eur J Endocrinol 2000;143:685-95
  16. Straub RH, et al. Serum Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA Sulfate Are Negatively Correlated with Serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and DHEA Inhibits IL-6 Secretion from Mononuclear Cells in Man in Vitro: Possible Link between Endocrinosenescence and Immunosenescence. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 1998;83(6):2012-17
  17. Cameron Dr, Braunstein GD. The use of dehydroepiandrosterone therapy in clinical practice. Treat Endocrinol. 2005;4(2):95-114
  18. Morales AJ, et al. Effects of replacement doses of DHEA in men and women of advanced age. J Clin Endo Metab. Jan 1994;78(6):1360-67
  19. Hertoghe T. The Hormone Handbook. International Medical Publications, UK. p54
  20. See reference 13, p247 
  21. See reference 13, p246 
  22. See reference 13, p47
  23. Drago F, Busa L. Acute low doses of melatonin restore full sexual activity in impotent male rats. Brain Res. 2000;878 (1-2):98-104
  24. Sutherland E, et al Elevated serum melatonin is associated with the nocturnal worsening of asthma. Jour Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:513-17
  25. See reference 13, p144
  26. Schumacher M. Neurosteroids in the Hippocampus: Neuronal Plasticity and memory. Stress. Oct 1997;2(1):65-78
  27. Burri A, et al. The acute effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on edocrine and sexual function in males. Psychoneuroendocrinology. Jun 2008;33(5):591-600
  28. Herthoge T. Passion, sex and Long Life: The Incredible Oxytocin Adventure. International Medical Books, Luxemburg. 2009:103